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Ka hooponopono a me na hui o Bordeaux Wineries: Ma ke Kanawai a ma ke Koho

ʻO ke kiʻi na E.Garely

Hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻoihana waina Farani ma luna o nā lula: nā cepages (nā ʻano hua waina i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana ʻana i ka waina), ka palapala honua, nā hua, ka ʻelemakule a me nā kikoʻī "pono ​​e hana" i hoʻoholo ʻia i loko o kēlā me kēia inoa. Ma muli o nā pilikia e kū nei i ka poʻe hana waina Palani, i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hoʻoponopono i nā lula, e kulou a pale paha iā lākou, ʻike nā mea kūʻai aku i nā mea hana waina ʻike ʻo "hui" o nā hale waina e hana i kahi ala kūpono i ka loaʻa kālā.

A. Les Cotes de Bordeaux (Les Cotes)

Les Cotes ua hoʻokumu ʻia (2008) ma o ka hui ʻana o ʻehā mau inoa i hoʻoholo e hoʻohui a kūʻai aku ma ke ʻano he hui ma mua o nā māla waina pākahi. ʻO ka hui o kēia manawa ʻo Blaye, Cadillac, Cote de Franc a me Castillon a hui pū lākou i ka lua o ka inoa nui loa ma Bordeaux me 12,000 mau ʻeka (30,000 ʻeka).

Mai ka hoʻomaka ʻana, ua hoʻonui ʻia nā mea hoʻopuka ma kahi o 29 pakeneka o ka nui a me 34 +/- ma ka nui. Ua hiki i ka hui ke loaʻa nā kumukūʻai maikaʻi aʻe ma o nā hoʻolaha hui ʻana a ʻo nā mea kanu liʻiliʻi e noho nei ma Les Cotes e pōmaikaʻi mai ka mea kūʻai aku e kūʻai pololei mai nā waiwai ma ka puka hale.

Aia nā Les Cotes de Bordeaux:

WTM Ladana 2022 e hana ʻia ana mai 7-9 Nowemapa 2022. Ikamu i kēia manawa!

- 1000 mau mea hana waina

– 30,000 eka (10 pakeneka o Bordeaux a pau)

- 65 miliona mau hue, a i ʻole 5.5 miliona mau hihia; 97 pakeneka waina ʻulaʻula

– Nā ʻano hua waina: hui pū ʻia ka hapa nui o nā waina me Merlot (5—80 pakeneka), me Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc a me Malbec.

B. Vin de Palani (VDF). Kūʻokoʻa Vinicultural

Mai ka makahiki 2010, ua ʻike ʻia kēia pūʻulu o nā hale kūʻai waina no nā waina papaʻaina a ua hoʻololi i ka māhele vin de table mua. Hiki iā Vin de France ke hoʻokomo i nā ʻano hua waina (ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻo Chardonnay a i ʻole Merlot) a me ka waina ma ka lepili akā ʻaʻole i hōʻailona ʻia e ka ʻāina a i ʻole ka inoa - ʻo ia wale nō he Palani. ʻO ke kūʻai aku ʻana o ka waina i ʻike ʻia ʻo VDF i kēia manawa he 340 miliona mau hue i kēlā me kēia makahiki - kūʻai ʻia 10 mau hue i kēlā me kēia kekona.

ʻO nā waina VDF he mau waina i kū ʻole i nā koina i kuhikuhi ʻia e AOC a i ʻole IGP (Indication Geographique Progegee) nā kānāwai hoʻopiʻi - aia paha nā māla waina ma waho o ka wahi hana i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia a i ʻole nā ​​ʻano hua waina a i ʻole nā ​​ʻenehana vinification i nā lula o nā inoa kūloko. . ʻO ka manaʻo (i manaʻo ʻia he mea hou i kēlā manawa), ʻae ʻia nā mea waina e hoʻohui i nā waina mai nā wahi like ʻole a me nā hui hou o nā ʻano hua waina, e hōʻike ana i kahi hoʻololi kumu no kahi ʻāina i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻāina. Ua hoʻolālā ʻia ʻo VDF e hoʻokuʻu i nā mea inu waina, e ʻae ana i ka hana ʻana i nā waina e hiki ke hoʻokūkū me nā hōʻailona honua a me ka hoʻomāmā ʻana i ka waina Farani, e hiki ai i nā mea kūʻai aku.

He mea paʻakikī nā ʻōnaehana waina pili honua Farani no ʻAmelika no ka mea ua hoʻāʻo ʻia nā mea kūʻai aku a me nā sommeliers e unuhi i ka appellation d'origine controlee (AOC) classification system and its complexities. Hāʻawi ʻo VDF i kahi ala maʻalahi o ka hōʻike ʻana i ka waina maikaʻi a me kahi wahi komo maikaʻi loa no nā mea kūʻai i makemake e ʻimi i nā waina Palani me Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Merlot, a me Cabernet Sauvignon. ʻO ke kūʻai aku ʻana o VDF ma 2019 i helu ʻia no 1.6 miliona mau hihia me ʻAmelika ʻAmelika ka ʻehā o ka mākeke nui loa, e hōʻike ana i ka 12 pakeneka o ka nui a me 16 pakeneka o ka waiwai kūʻai.

C. Counseil Interprofessional du Vin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux Wine Council, CIVB)

I ka makahiki 1948, ua hoʻokomo ʻia ka ʻaha kūkā waina ʻo Bordeaux ma o ke kānāwai Farani a ua hui pū ʻo ia i nā mea kanu waina, nā mea kālepa a me nā mea kālepa e kaʻana like i ka misionari like:

1. Ke kuai ana. E hoʻoulu i ka noi, e kiʻi i nā mea kūʻai aku ʻōpio hou, a e hōʻoia i ko lākou kūpaʻa i ka brand.

2. Naauao. I ke kālepa a hoʻoikaika i ka pilina.

3. ʻenehana. Kūkulu ʻike; mālama i ka maikaʻi o nā waina Bordeaux; e manaʻo i nā koi hou e pili ana i ke kaiapuni, CSR a me nā lula palekana meaʻai.

4. Waiwai. Hāʻawi i ka ʻike no ka hana ʻana, ka mākeke, ka honua a me ke kūʻai ʻana i nā waina Bordeaux a puni ka honua.

5. Nā mea hoihoi. E pale i nā terroir, e hakakā i ka hoʻopunipuni, e hoʻomohala i ka huakaʻi waina.

6. Hoʻokaʻawale. Kōkua i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka mea kūʻai aku ma ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka pilikia i ka wā e hoʻokūkū ai ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana, manawa a hāʻawi i kahi loiloi koʻikoʻi o nā waina e nā mea hoʻohewa honua.

Ma Iune 28, 2019, ʻo ka CIVD, e nānā ana i ʻelua mau makahiki o ka noiʻi ʻana, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia i ka hoʻohui ʻana o ʻeono mau ʻano hua waina pale wela ʻaʻole i kanu mua ʻia ma ka ʻāina, e ʻae ʻia no ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hui ʻana o Bordeaux. Ua ʻae ʻia ka hoʻololi ma muli o ka makaʻu i ka hoʻomehana honua e luku ana i ka ʻoihana holoʻokoʻa. Ke piʻi aʻe nei ka wela, ke hoʻāʻo nei nā mea hana waina e hana kūʻē i nā loli i hoʻololi ʻia i ka ʻono me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ala he nui e ʻimi ai i nā hopena.

Ma Ianuali 26, 2021, ka Institut National de l'Origne et de la Qualite (INAO), ka hui e hoʻomalu i nā koho hua waina, ua ʻae mua ʻia ka hoʻohana ʻana i ʻehā ʻulaʻula hou a ʻelua mau ʻano hua waina keʻokeʻo hou ma ka ʻāina ʻo Bordeaux me:

Pūnaewele:

Arinarnoa

Castets

ʻO Marselan

Lahui Touriga

Keʻokeʻo:

Alvarinho

Liliorila

He mea hoʻohui kēia mau ʻano ʻano i nā hua waina i ʻāpono ʻia i kēia manawa ma nā kikoʻī inoa inoa.

ʻO nā huawaina ʻoi loa ka pilikia ʻo Merlot a me Sauvignon Blanc ka mea i haku i ka nui o nā kumu waina ʻulaʻula a keʻokeʻo ma ka ʻāina ʻo Bordeaux. Ua hoʻololi ke aniau i ka hopena o nā makahiki 1990, ua neʻe ka ʻohi ʻana no kēia mau hua waina i ʻAukake me ka lā 10 o Kepakemapa a hiki i ʻOkakopa 10 ka mea maʻamau o ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana. Hōʻike ka noiʻi i kēia mau ʻano hua waina ʻelua e like me ka mea i kēia manawa, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻole ʻia i ka makahiki 2050.

D. Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois

I ka makahiki 1907, ua hoʻoholo ʻia ke kānāwai e ʻōlelo ana i ka poʻe mahiʻai e pono lākou e hōʻike i ka nui o kā lākou ʻohi ʻai ʻana a hiki ke hoʻohua i ka waina e like me kā lākou ʻohi i hōʻike ʻia. Eia naʻe, ua hoʻonui ka poʻe mahiʻai i ka nui o kā lākou ʻohi (1907-08) no laila - hiki iā lākou ke hoʻonui i kā lākou kūʻai aku me ka waina maikaʻi mai ka Midi a i ʻole e lawe mai i nā waina mai waho o ka ʻāina.

Ua ho'āʻo pinepine ka Farani e hoʻoponopono i ka maikaʻi. I ka makahiki 1932, ua hoʻāʻo ka Farani e hoʻokomo i ka chateaux liʻiliʻi loa i ʻike ʻia i loko o kahi ʻōnaehana hoʻonohonoho i loaʻa i nā hale kūʻai waina 444, 6 ma ka crus bourgeois kūlana kiʻekiʻe, 99 crus bourgeois superior a me 339 plain crus bourgeois.

I ka makahiki 1966, ua hoʻololi hou ʻia ke kūlana e ka Syndicate des Crus Bourgeois a i ka makahiki 1978 aia he 128 chateaux i helu ʻia. I ka makahiki 1978, ua hoʻoholo ka European Community (ʻo ia ka EU) he mea ʻole ka huaʻōlelo GRAND a me EXCEPTIONAL a ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻohana hou ʻia. Mai ia manawa mai, he crus bourgeois wale nō nā crus' bourgeois. Ua wehe kēia i nā ʻīpuka no ka poʻe ma waho o ka Medoc e hoʻohana i ka huaʻōlelo.

Pehea e hana ai ka Syndicate i kēia manawa:

ʻO Chateaux e makemake ana e hoʻohana i ka inoa cru bourgeois pili i ka Syndicat (kumu $435). Hāʻawi ka waiwai i ka ʻike e pili ana i ka hana (nā moʻolelo mōʻaukala, nā ʻano vinification, etc.)

ʻO nā kumu no ka hoʻokomo ʻana:

– Terroir

- Ka maikaʻi (nā laʻana o nā waina mai 6 mau waina e ʻono ʻia e ke komite)

- Nā kūlana o ka mahiʻai a me ka vinification

- Ke kūlike o ka maikaʻi

– Kaulana

E ʻae ʻia anei ka chateaux e hoʻohana nei i ka inoa cru bourgeois no kā lākou mau waina ʻelua e hoʻomau?

E loaʻa anei i kēlā me kēia hale pule kona hale kūʻai ponoʻī?

Ma hea kahi e haʻalele ai kēia i nā hui? 

He 18 mau lālā o ke Kōmike (ma ka liʻiliʻi o hoʻokahi lālā kumu mai ka Bordeaux School of Enology, brokers, negociants, cru bourgeois Syndicat members). E nānā ʻia nā hale waina i kēlā me kēia 10-12 mau makahiki. ʻAʻole ʻae ʻia nā mea noi e hoʻohana i ka inoa cru bourgeois ma kā lākou lepili a pono e kali a hiki i ka loiloi hou e noi hou ai.

I kēia mau lā, ua hoʻihoʻi ka Syndicat i ka "ʻokoʻa" a me ka "kiʻekiʻe" a me kahi ʻōnaehana ʻekolu-tiered e paipai i nā mea hana e nānā i ka maikaʻi a hana i ko lākou ala ma ke kaʻina hana. Hoʻoponopono pono ʻia ka ʻōnaehana tiered i loaʻa ka waiwai o nā huaʻōlelo kiʻekiʻe. ʻO ka pōʻino i loko o ka ʻōnaehana ʻo ka lilo ʻana o ka papa inoa i mea kaumaha loa me ka nui o nā mea i manaʻo ʻia he ʻokoʻa a he ʻuʻuku loa e like me crus bourgeois maʻamau e lilo ia i mea paʻakikī i ka mālama ʻana i kahi hale pyramid.

Lole omole Waina

Lawe ʻia nā lepili waina Farani i ka inoa o ke kauhale a ʻaʻole nā ​​ʻano hua waina. He hōʻoiaʻiʻo ia no ka loaʻa ʻana o nā hua waina no ke kauhale a i ʻole ka ʻāina no ka mea he mau kānāwai kūʻokoʻa ko kēlā me kēia wahi waina e pili ana i nā ʻano hua waina e hiki ke ulu, ka ʻae ʻia a me ka hana ʻana o ka waina. ʻO nā waina Farani e ʻōlelo ana ʻo AOC, AC, a me AOP e hōʻoiaʻiʻo e hana ʻia ka waina e like me nā ʻano viticultural a me ka hana waina.

ʻO nā kūlana hana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e ka ʻōnaehana AOC:

1. Ka inoa o ka mea hana

2. Hoʻoulu ʻia nā hua waina ma kēlā me kēia inoa

3. Loaʻa ka waiʻona

4. Volume

5. Nā ʻāpana

6. Kaohi ana i na ano lepo

7. Nā anana pili i nā hualoaʻa e like me nā hua kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole ka ʻona ʻona.

Hua waina

Aia nā kumu no ka manaʻo maikaʻi ma waena o nā mea pā waina ʻo Bordeaux no ka mea ua ulu ka nui o nā mea inu waina hoʻomau ma Bordeaux ma kahi o hoʻokahi ʻumi makahiki i ka ʻike ʻana o nā mea hana i nā pono kūlohelohe a me nā ʻoihana o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka hana. Ua manaʻo ʻia ma ka makahiki 2030, e loaʻa i ka 100 ka nui o nā ʻoihana waina kekahi pae o nā hana mahiʻai hoʻomau i hōʻoia ʻia.

Ma 2014, 34 pākēneka o ka nui o nā wineries ma Bordeaux i mahiʻai ma ke ʻano organically, hoʻomau ma lalo o HEV (high environmental value) me ka palapala HEV i kālele ʻia i ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pesticides a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka biodiversity, Terra Vitis, a i ʻole biodynamic i hōʻoia ʻia. I kēia manawa, lele ka helu ma 65 pakeneka (kokoke).

Wahi a Jeremy Noye, Pelekikena a me Luna Nui o New York's Morrell & Co., "ʻOi aku ka waiwai o Bordeaux i kēia manawa ma mua o Napa." No ka waiwai, hiki i ka poʻe aloha waina Bordeaux ke hoʻokaʻawale i nā lepili First Growth e kūʻai aku ana ma $600 i ka ʻōmole a me ka lua-ulu ma $300, a neʻe i kā lākou laina ʻike i petits-chateaux mai $20-$70 a 750-ml. Ua koho ʻia ʻo Bordeaux i ka helu 1 ma waena o nā wahi waina kūʻai nui loa ma Farani, Displace Provence.

He moʻolelo kēia e pili ana i ka waina Bordeaux.

E heluhelu i ka ʻāpana 1 ma aneʻi:  ʻO nā waina Bordeaux: Hoʻomaka me ka hoʻoluhi

E heluhelu i ka ʻāpana 2 ma aneʻi:  ʻO ka waina Bordeaux: Pivot mai ka poʻe i ka lepo

E heluhelu i ka ʻāpana 3 ma aneʻi:  Hoʻololi ʻo Bordeaux a me kāna mau waina… Me ka mālie

© Kauka Elinor Garely. ʻAʻole hiki ke kope ʻia kēia ʻatikala kope, me nā kiʻi, me ka ʻole o ka ʻae palapala ʻia mai ka mea kākau.

#waina

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ʻO Kauka Elinor Garely - kūikawā i eTN a me ka luna hoʻoponopono, wines.travel

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