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Ka wai ma ka honua: mai ka lepo mai ka lewa?

Lawe ka lepo i ka wai i ka Honua
i kakauia ma ʻO Linda S. Hohnholz

Ua hoʻoponopono paha kekahi hui ʻepekema honua i kahi mea pohihihi nui e pili ana i ke kumu o ka wai ma ka Honua, ma hope o ka wehe ʻana i nā hōʻike hou e kuhikuhi ana i kahi mea hewa ʻole - ka Lā.

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Ma kahi pepa hou i paʻi ʻia i kēia lā ma ka puke pai Nature Astronomy, ʻO kahi hui o nā mea noiʻi mai UK, Australia a me ʻAmelika e wehewehe nei i ka hōʻike ʻana o ka loiloi hou o kahi asteroid kahiko i lawe ʻia e nā lepo lepo extraterrestrial ka wai i ka Honua i ka wā i hoʻokumu ʻia ai ka honua.

ʻO ka wai i loko o ka palaoa i hana ʻia e lewa lewa, he kaʻina hana e hoʻololi ai i nā ʻāpana i hoʻopiʻi ʻia mai ka Lā i kapa ʻia ʻo ka makani lā i ka hana kemika o nā kīʻaha e hana ai i nā molekole wai. 

Hiki i ka ʻike ke pane i ka nīnau lōʻihi e pili ana i kahi i loaʻa ai i ka Honua waiwai nui ka wai i ka moana e uhi ana i ka 70 pakeneka o kona ʻili - ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā honua pōhaku ʻē aʻe o kā mākou Pūnaehana Lā. Hiki iā ia ke kōkua i nā mikiona ākea e hiki mai ana e ʻimi i nā kumu wai ma nā honua ʻole.

Ua pohihihi ka poʻe ʻepekema honua no nā makahiki he nui i ke kumu o ka moana o ka Honua. Manaʻo kekahi manaʻo e hiki ke lawe mai i kekahi ʻano pōhaku e lawe ana i ka wai i kapa ʻia ʻo C-type asteroids wai i ka honua i nā pae hope loa o kona hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana he 4.6 biliona makahiki i hala.  

No ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i kēlā kumumanaʻo, ua ʻimi mua nā ʻepekema i ka isotopic 'fingerprint' o nā ʻāpana o nā asteroids C-type i hāʻule i ka Honua ma ke ʻano he wai-waiwai carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Inā like ka ratio o ka hydrogen a me ka deuterium i loko o ka wai meteorite me ka wai terrestrial, hiki i nā ʻepekema ke hoʻoholo ʻo C-type meteorites ke kumu paha.

ʻAʻole maopopo loa nā hopena. ʻOiai ua pili maoli kekahi mau meteorites 'deuterium/hydrogen fingerprint me ka wai o ka Honua, he nui ka poʻe ʻaʻole. Ma ka awelika, ʻaʻole i kulike ʻia nā manamana lima wai o kēia meteorites me ka wai i loaʻa i ka ʻahu o ka Honua a me nā moana. Akā, loaʻa i ka Honua kekahi manamana lima isotopic ʻokoʻa. 

ʻO ia hoʻi, ʻoiai ua loaʻa mai kekahi o ka wai o ka Honua mai nā meteorites C-type, ua loaʻa paha i ka Honua i hoʻokumu ʻia ka wai mai ka liʻiliʻi loa i hoʻokahi kumu kukui isotopically i puka mai ma kahi ʻē aʻe o ka Pūnaehana Lā. 

Ua hoʻohana ka hui i alakaʻi ʻia e ke Kulanui o Glasgow i kahi kaʻina hana analytical ʻokiʻoki i kapa ʻia ʻo atom probe tomography e nānā i nā laʻana mai kahi ʻano pōhaku ākea ʻē aʻe i ʻike ʻia he ʻano asteroid S-type, kahi orbit kokoke i ka lā ma mua o nā ʻano C. ʻO nā mea hoʻohālike a lākou i kālailai mai ai mai kahi asteroid i kapa ʻia ʻo Itokawa, i hōʻiliʻili ʻia e ka ʻimi hoʻokele o Iapana ʻo Hayabusa a hoʻi i ka Honua i ka makahiki 2010.

Atom probe tomography i hiki ai i ka hui ke ana i ke ano atomika o na hua i hookahi atomi i ka manawa a me ka ike ana i na molekule wai. Hōʻike kā lākou mau ʻike i ka nui o ka wai i hana ʻia ma lalo pono o ka ʻili o ka lepo mai Itokawa mai ma o ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka lewa. 

ʻO ka ʻōnaehana solar mua he wahi lepo lepo loa, e hāʻawi ana i ka nui o ka manawa kūpono e hoʻohua ʻia ma lalo o ka ʻili o nā ʻāpana lepo. Ua ʻōlelo ka poʻe noiʻi, ua ua kēia lepo wai i ka honua mua ma ka ʻaoʻao o C-type asteroids ma ke ʻano o ka lawe ʻana i nā moana o ka Honua.

ʻO Kauka Luke Daly, o ke Kula Nui o Glasgow o Geographical and Earth Science, ʻo ia ke alakaʻi o ka pepa. Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Dr Daly: "ʻO nā makani lā he mau kahawai o ka hapa nui o ka hydrogen a me ka helium i kahe mau mai ka Lā a i ka lewa. Ke paʻi kēlā mau ion hydrogen i ka ʻili ea ʻole e like me ka asteroid a i ʻole kahi ʻāpana lepo o ka lewa, komo lākou i kahi mau ʻumi nanometer ma lalo o ka ʻili, kahi e hiki ai ke hoʻopili i ka haku mele o ka pōhaku. I ka wā lōʻihi, hiki i ka hopena 'space weathering' o nā ion hydrogen ke hoʻokuʻu i nā ʻātoma oxygen mai nā mea i loko o ka pōhaku e hana i ka H.2ʻO - wai - paʻa i loko o nā minerala ma ka asteroid.

"ʻO ka mea nui, ʻo kēia wai i loaʻa i ka makani solar i hana ʻia e ka ʻōnaehana solar mua he māmā isotopically. ʻO ia ka manaʻo ikaika ʻo ka lepo lepo maikaʻi, i pā ʻia e ka makani o ka lā a huki ʻia i loko o ka honua i hoʻokumu ʻia i mau piliona makahiki i hala aku nei, ʻo ia ke kumu o ka wai i nalowale o ka wai o ka honua.

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Prof. Phil Bland, he Kumu Koʻikoʻi ʻo John Curtin ma ke Kula o ka Honua a me nā ʻEpekema Planetary ma ke Kulanui ʻo Curtin a me ka mea kākau pū o ka pepa "Atom probe tomography e hiki iā mākou ke nānā kikoʻī loa i loko o nā nanometer 50 mua a i ʻole o ka ʻili. o ka lepo lepo ma Itokawa, e kaapuni ana i ka la i 18 mau mahina. Ua ʻae iā mākou e ʻike ua lawa ka wai i kēia ʻāpana o ka ʻāpana o ka lewa a inā mākou e hoʻonui i ka nui, e like paha ia ma kahi o 20 lita no kēlā me kēia mika cubic o ka pōhaku.

Ua hoʻohui ʻo Prof. Michelle Thompson o ka 'Oihana o ka Honua, Atmospheric, a me Planetary Science ma ke Kulanui ʻo Purdue: "ʻO ia ke ʻano o ke ana ʻaʻole hiki ke hiki me ka ʻole o kēia ʻenehana kupaianaha. Hāʻawi ia iā mākou i kahi ʻike kupaianaha i ke ʻano o nā ʻāpana lepo liʻiliʻi e lana ana i ka lewa e kōkua iā mākou e hoʻohālikelike i nā puke e pili ana i ka hana isotopic o ka wai o ka Honua, a hāʻawi iā mākou i nā hōʻailona hou e kōkua i ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka pohihihi o kona kumu.

Ua mālama nui nā mea noiʻi e hōʻoia i ka pololei o nā hopena o kā lākou hoʻāʻo ʻana, e hana ana i nā hoʻokolohua hou me nā kumu ʻē aʻe e hōʻoia i kā lākou hopena.

Ua hoʻohui ʻo Dr Daly: "ʻO ka ʻōnaehana atom probe tomography ma Curtin University he papa honua, akā ʻaʻole i hoʻohana maoli ʻia no ke ʻano o ka loiloi o ka hydrogen a mākou e hana nei ma aneʻi. Makemake mākou e hōʻoia i ka pololei o nā hopena a mākou e ʻike nei. Ua hōʻike au i kā mākou mau hopena mua ma ka hālāwai Lunar and Planetary Science i ka makahiki 2018, a nīnau aku inā e kōkua kekahi mau hoa hana i ka hōʻoia ʻana i kā mākou ʻike me nā laʻana o kā lākou iho. I ko mākou hauʻoli, ua hāʻawi pū nā hoa hana ma ka NASA Johnson Space Center a me ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa, Purdue, Virginia a me Northern Arizona University, Idaho a me Sandia national laboratories e kōkua. Hāʻawi lākou iā mākou i nā laʻana o nā minela like i hoʻomālamalama ʻia me ka helium a me ka deuterium ma kahi o ka hydrogen, a mai nā hopena hoʻokolohua atomo o ia mau mea ua maopopo koke ka mea a mākou e ʻike nei ma Itokawa he extraterrestrial i kumu.

"ʻO nā hoa hana i hāʻawi i kā lākou kākoʻo i kēia noiʻi ʻana he hui moeʻuhane no ka wā lewa, no laila hauʻoli nui mākou i nā hōʻike a mākou i hōʻiliʻili ai. Hiki iā ia ke wehe i ka puka i kahi ʻike maikaʻi aʻe i ke ʻano o ka Solar System mua a me ke ʻano o ka honua a me kona mau moana.

Ua hoʻohui ʻo Polofesa John Bradley, o ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa, Honolulu, he hoa kākau o ka pepa: ʻO kēia mau makahiki i hala aku nei, ua pili ka manaʻo e pili ana ka hoʻomālamalama makani o ka lā i ke kumu o ka wai ma ka ʻōnaehana solar. , ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka pili ʻana i nā moana o ka Honua, inā ua aloha ʻia me ke kānalua. Ma ka hōʻike ʻana no ka manawa mua i hana ʻia ka wai i loko ma ka ʻili o kahi asteroid, kūkulu kā mākou noiʻi ma luna o ke kino hōʻiliʻili o nā hōʻike e hoʻohua maoli ka wai i ka hui ʻana o ka makani lā me nā lepo lepo momona o ka oxygen. 

"Ma muli o ka nui o ka lepo i loko o ka nebula o ka lā ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka planetesimal accretion i ʻike ʻole ʻia, pili pono ka wai i hana ʻia e kēia mīkini i ke kumu o ka wai i loko o nā ʻōnaehana honua a me ka hana isotopic o nā moana o ka Honua."

ʻO kā lākou mau manaʻo no ka nui o ka wai i loko o nā ʻili o ka lewa e hōʻike pū ana i kahi ala e hiki ai i nā mea mākaʻikaʻi i ka wā e hiki mai ana ke hana i nā lako wai ma nā papa honua ʻeleʻele loa. 

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Professor Hope Ishii o ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa, ka mea kākau lua: “ʻO kekahi pilikia o ka mākaʻikaʻi ʻana i ka lewa kanaka e hiki mai ana, ʻo ia ka loaʻa ʻana o ka wai e lawa ai ka wai e ola ai lākou a hoʻokō i kā lākou mau hana me ka lawe ʻole ʻia o ia mea ma kā lākou huakaʻi. . 

"Manaʻo mākou he mea kūpono ke manaʻo ʻana ʻo ke kaʻina hana ʻino like ʻole i hana i ka wai ma Itokawa e hana ʻia i hoʻokahi degere a i ʻole ma nā honua lewa ʻole e like me ka Moon a i ʻole ka asteroid Vesta. ʻO ia ke ʻano he hiki i ka poʻe mākaʻikaʻi lewa ke hana pololei i nā lako wai hou mai ka lepo mai ka ili o ka honua. He mea hauʻoli ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i hiki i nā kaʻina hana i hoʻokumu i ka honua ke kōkua i ke kākoʻo ʻana i ke ola kanaka i ko mākou hele ʻana ma waho o ka Honua. 

Ua hoʻohui ʻo Dr Daly: "Ke hoʻomaka nei ka papahana Artemis NASA e hoʻokumu i kahi kahua paʻa ma ka mahina. Inā loaʻa i ka ʻili o ka mahina kahi waihona wai like i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka makani lā i wehe ʻia kēia noiʻi ma Itokawa, he kumu waiwai nui ia e kōkua ai i ka hoʻokō ʻana i kēlā pahuhopu.

Ua paʻi ʻia ka pepa a ka hui, i kapa ʻia ʻo 'Solar Wind Contribution's to the Earth's Oceans' ma. Nature Astronomy. 

Nā mea noiʻi mai ke Kulanui o Glasgow, ke Kulanui ʻo Curtin, ke Kulanui o Sydney, ke Kulanui o Oxford, ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa, ka Hale Hōʻikeʻike Moʻolelo Kūlohelohe, Idha National Laboratory, Lockheed Martin, Sandia National Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, ke Kulanui o Virginia, Northern Arizona University a me Purdue University i hāʻawi i ka pepa. 

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ʻO Linda S. Hohnholz

ʻO Linda Hohnholz ka luna hoʻoponopono no eTurboNews no nā makahiki he nui.
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