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Huakaʻi kūikawā i Lisbon: Hōʻike i nā mea hao

Huakaʻi kūikawā i Lisbon: Hōʻike i nā mea hao
Kiʻi © Peter Tarlow

Ua ʻokoʻa kēia huakaʻi mai ka hapa nui o kaʻu mau huakaʻi. ʻO ka maʻamau hele wau i kahi wahi e hana ai i nā pilikia o ka palekana hoʻokipa, akā ʻo kēia huakaʻi i Pokukala mea kūikawā. Eia wau ma muli o kaʻu hana me ka Center o Latino - Ka pilina Iudaio (CLJR). Lawe ka CLJR i nā alakaʻi Latino i ʻIseraʻela. ʻO kēia huakaʻi, eia naʻe ka hope - ke lawe nei i nā mea ʻelua Nā Latino a me nā Iudaio i ka puka pā o ka honua o ka moʻomeheu Sephardic a me kahi e lele ai ka lele no nā mea he nui i hele mai i nā ʻāina o ʻAmelika.

ʻO ka pilina o Pokukala me ka poʻe Iudaio kekahi o nā kiʻekiʻe a me nā haʻahaʻa. Ma ka ʻaoʻao maikaʻi ʻole, hewa loa ka ʻInikua Pukiki a holo maoli ka poʻe ma Pokukala no Sepania e hoʻoholo ana e lawe i ko lākou manawa kūpono me ka Spanish Inquisition. Ma kahi ʻaoʻao maikaʻi aʻe, ʻo Pokukala ka puʻuhonua makemake ʻia o nā Iudaio Sepania i ʻauheʻe mai Sepania i ka makahiki 1492. No laila, nui nā Iudaio Sepania i hele ma Pokukala i ʻAmelika ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e pakele ai i ka lapalapa ahi i nīnau ʻia ma nā ʻāpana he nui o Latin America, ʻo ka huaʻōlelo "portugués" ka mea like. me nā "Iudaio." I loko o ka mōʻaukala hou loa, ua lawelawe ʻo Pokukala ma ke ʻano he wahi kaʻa nui e ʻae ana i nā Iudaio e holo i nā mea weliweli o ka poʻe Kelemania i noho ʻia e ʻEulopa e loaʻa ke kūʻokoʻa i ʻAmelika a pakele i nā weliweli o ka Holocaust.

Ua kōkua nui nā Iudaio i ka hui Pukiki. ʻO ia ka ʻepekema o Abraham Zacuto i ʻae i ka hoʻokele kikoʻī ma luna o ke kai ākea i nā kenekulia he nui ma mua o ka noʻonoʻo ʻana o kahi GPS. Na Dona Grácia Mendes i hōʻike i ka honua i hiki i ka wahine ke like me ke kāne ma ke kalepa nui a me ka panakō. Ua ulana ʻia kēia hodgepodge politika i ke ʻano maoli o ka ʻuhane o Pokukala.

Aia ma ka ʻāina ʻo ʻEulopa, ʻo Pokukala, e like me ka nui o ʻEulopa, kahi o ka "honua kahiko" ka ʻoluʻolu, ka hanohano, nā hoʻokae, a me nā inaina. ʻAʻole kū wale ʻo Pokukala i ke komohana, akā ʻo ia ka lāhui komohana loa o ʻEulopa, ʻo ka lae komohana loa ma ka pae ʻāina ʻo ʻEulopa. E like me kēia, he ʻāina kēia nona ka kino ma ʻEulopa, akā aia kona ʻuhane ma ka Moana ʻAkelanika, a ke kau nei kona mau maka i kahi honua hou o ka hoʻohou a me ka lana o ka manaʻo.

No kēia mau kumu āpau i hoʻoholo ai kā mākou CLJR, a me ka Iudaio Hoʻoilina Iudaio, ʻo kā mākou huakaʻi hele ʻole mua ʻole Israel ʻaʻole ia no kēia ʻāina e hōʻailona nei i ka ʻuhane o ka ʻimi ʻana akā ʻo ia kahi kahi e nui ai nā Iudaio a me nā Latino ma ʻō a ma ʻaneʻi. Hāʻule nā ​​lāhui o ʻAmelika.

ʻO nehinei ko mākou lā kokoke kokoke piha ma Lisbon. Ua haʻalele mākou i ke kahua mokulele e ka hola 10:00 o ka manawa kūloko a ua laki laki mākou e kiʻi i kahi mākaʻikaʻi mua. A laila hoʻohui mākou i ka leʻaleʻa o Lisbon me ke kipa ʻana i kāna hale hālāwai mua mua-Inquisitional. ʻO ka poʻe i loko o ka hui i hoʻāʻo i ke kaulana o ke kūlanakauhale ʻo “Pasteis de Belem,” ua hoʻāʻo i kona waina, a hele a alo a alo me nā manaʻolana a me nā pilikia o ko ke kaiāulu Iudaio, a laila hoʻomaka ka presto e "komo" i ka honua e pili ana i nā alahaka kahiko a me nā mea hou. .

I kēia lā, ua hele mākou i kekahi o nā “kaiāulu” kaulana a Lisbon. ʻO Sinta kahi kūlanakauhale nani a mōʻaukala i kēia lā me nā ala hou e hana ana ma kahi o 45 mau minuke mai Lisbon. ʻO nā kūlanakauhale ʻē aʻe ʻelua he mau kahua pāʻani kaulana no ka chic, waiwai, a kaulana. ʻO Sinta ke kauwela a i ʻole ka hoʻi hope ʻana o ka ʻāina ʻo King Manu.

ʻO ka Ironi o ka Mōʻī Manuahi

Hoʻopiha ʻia ka mōʻaukala me nā mea hao. ʻO ka moʻolelo o ka pilina ma waena o ka Mōʻī Manuele a me nā Iudaio kekahi mea like. He mōʻī ʻo Manu ʻo ia ka mea pro-Semitik i hana ʻino loa ʻo ia i hōʻeha nui. Ke aʻo nei ka mōʻaukala iā mākou ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ke kumukūʻai male, ua uku ʻo Manu i nā mōʻī ʻino, ʻo Ferdinand lāua ʻo Isabel, e male i kā lāua kaikamahine. Koi aku kēia mau mōʻī Sepania iā ia e kipaku aku i kāna poʻe Iudaio, a i kēlā manawa, ʻoi aku ka 20% o ko Pokukala noho Iudaio. ʻO ka hapa nui o kēia poʻe he poʻe kamaʻāina hana nui loa ma Pokukala.
Ua haʻalele kēia koi i ka mōʻī me kahi pilikia nui - ʻaʻole e kipaku i ka poʻe Iudaio no ka manaʻo ʻaʻole e hiki i kāna male ʻana a malia paha e lilo kāna manawa e noho ai i ka noho aliʻi Sepania, akā no ka kipaku ʻana i kāna mau makaʻāinana Iudaio ʻo ia ka mea e lilo ana ʻo Pokukala i 20% o kona lehulehu. a he nui o kona mau kupa loea loa. ʻO kāna pane? ʻO ka hoʻohuli ikaika ʻana o nā Iudaio o Pokukala. ʻO ke ʻano o ka hopena he ala ia e mālama ai ka mōʻī i kāna mau makaʻāinana loea ʻelua a hiki nō ke male, a i kekahi lā paha e lilo ʻo Sepania.

Ua male ʻo Manu i ke kaikamahine a nā aliʻi Sepania hewa akā ʻaʻole i loaʻa ka noho aliʻi Sepania. No nā Iudaio Pukiki, ua lilo ke ola weliweli. Ua pono lākou e hana pū me nā haunaele, nā luku, a me nā ahi Inquisitional. ʻO kēia mau mea ʻekolu ʻoiai ʻo ka palena o nā palena a me nā awa o Pokukala, he nui ka poʻe e loaʻa kahi ala e pakele ai i ke kūʻokoʻa o Holland a me ka Honua Hou.

I ko lākou haʻalele ʻana, ua lawe pū lākou i kā lākou tālena me lākou. Ua kūkulu nā mamo a kēia poʻe mahuka Pukiki i nā kaiāulu nui ma ʻAmekekona, Nu Ioka, a me Mekiko. Ua komo mālie ʻo Pokukala i kahi hohonu hohonu, a i ka hopena o 1980 wale nō ua kala aku ke Kuhina Nui o Pokukala i ka poʻe Iudaio. Aia me kā Mario Soares 'kala aku i wehe ʻia kahi mokuna hou i nā pilina Iudaio-Pukiki.

Hoʻomaopopo ʻo Pokukala i kēia manawa ʻaʻole hiki ke kala ʻia nā ʻino i hana ʻia e nā ahi Inquisitional. ʻO ka nui o nā mamo o kēia "lawena hoʻomana" i hāʻawi nui - ʻaʻole iā Pokukala - akā i nā lāhui ʻē aʻe a puni ka honua.

ʻO nā mea hao i ka mōʻaukala, eia nō naʻe. I kēia mau lā e pīhoihoi ka poʻe i ʻike ʻia i nā kaiāulu Iudaio hou e noho nei i nā kūlanakauhale a puni Pokukala. Ma ke ʻano he uku pānaʻi no kāna hana i hala, ua hoʻonui ʻo Pokukala i kahi hana o ka hoʻoponopono mōʻaukala, ke kamaʻāina i nā mamo a nā mea i hōʻeha ʻia. Ma hope paha o ʻelima mau kenekulia, ke ʻike nei mākou i ka pani ʻana o kahi pōʻai i hoʻomaka ʻia i ka 1496 a hala nā kenekulia ʻelima.

Huakaʻi kūikawā i Lisbon: Hōʻike i nā mea hao

Kiʻi © Peter Tarlow 

Huakaʻi kūikawā i Lisbon: Hōʻike i nā mea hao

Kiʻi © Peter Tarlow 

Huakaʻi kūikawā i Lisbon: Hōʻike i nā mea hao

Kiʻi © Peter Tarlow

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ʻO Kauka Peter E. Tarlow

ʻO Kauka Peter E. Tarlow he haʻi ʻōlelo kaulana a he loea hoʻi i loea i ka hopena o ka lawehala a me ka hoʻoweliweli i ka ʻoihana hoʻokipa, ka hanana a me ka hoʻokele waiwai hoʻokipa. Mai ka makahiki 1990, ua kōkua ʻo Tarlow i ke kaiāulu huakaʻi me nā pilikia e like me ka palekana huakaʻi a me ka palekana, hoʻomohala hoʻokele waiwai, marketing marketing, a me ka noʻonoʻo noʻonoʻo.

Ma ke ʻano he mea kākau kaulana i ke kahua o ka palekana hoʻokipa, ʻo Tarlow kahi mea kākau i nā puke he nui e pili ana i ka palekana mākaʻikaʻi, a paʻi i nā ʻatikala noiʻi a me nā noiʻi e pili ana i nā pilikia e pili ana i nā ʻatikala i paʻi ʻia ma The Futurist, ka Pai no ka noiʻi huakaʻi a me Ka mālama palekana. ʻO ka ʻatikala a Tarlow ākea o nā ʻatikala a me ka ʻepekema ʻatikala e pili ana i nā ʻatikala e pili ana i nā kumuhana e like me: Kākau a paʻi ʻo Tarlow i ka nūhou mākaʻikaʻi mākaʻikaʻi ma ka pūnaewele i heluhelu ʻia e ka poʻe mākaʻikaʻi a me nā mākaʻikaʻi huakaʻi a puni ka honua i kāna ʻōlelo Pelekane, Paniolo, a me Pokiki.

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